Natural resources and high technologies have determined the qualitative growth of the chemical industry
Huge potential of the chemical industry is based on colossal natural resources. This sector of industrial production takes leading positions in the process of transferring the national economy to the non-primary development path, the formation of new industries, increasing the output of diverse and competitive products: to meet domestic needs and export-oriented, widely in demand in foreign markets.
Accelerated capacity building to produce high-quality mineral fertilizers is the priority for the development of the chemical industry. The richest reserves of hydrocarbon and hydrogen sulphide raw materials, the latest technologies introduced in the industry, the methods of its processing and development of the finished product are factors allowed significantly expanding the range and increasing the volume of production of mineral products that are in high demand at home and abroad.
Today, the industry infrastructure is represented by the powerful cluster of nitrogen fertilizer companies: "Maryazot" production association, "Tejenkarbamid" and "Marykarbamid" plants, and the gas chemical complex for the annual production of 640,000 tons of carbamide and 400,000 tons of ammonia in Mary city, commissioned in 2014. Taking into account the total volume of output are fully satisfied not only the needs of the agricultural sector of Turkmenistan in nitrogen fertilizers , but their stable positions in the volume of export turnover have been formed - up to 450 thousand tons per year.
The decision to build another innovative gas chemical complex, which is being built in Garabogaz town in the Balkan velayat, is an important step in increasing the capacity for the production of this product.
Here 3 thousand 500 tons will be produced per day and 1 million 155 thousand tons of carbamide fertilizers a year. They can also be exported by sea, in connection with which the construction of a large port has been started in Garabogaz town. Due to the implementation of this project, the volume of carbamide production in the country will be more than 2 million tons.
Carbamide is the most concentrated solid nitrogen fertilizer containing up to 45-46% nitrogen. This chemical product is also used in medicine for the production of melamine, urea-formaldehyde resins and in other industries. Leading foreign companies are already showing an interest in buying this product.
With the commissioning last year of a workshop for production of 500 thousand tons of sulfuric acid per year on the basis of the Turkmenabat chemical plant, which is currently the only producer of phosphate fertilizers in the country, a new stage in the development of this sub-sector has begun. Prospectivity and profitability of this production are due to the fact that sulfuric acid is the most important component in the production of this type of mineral nutrition for plants. The design capacity of the workshop allows not only to fully meet the domestic needs of the state in high-quality products, but also to supply its significant part for export.
Sulfuric acid is also used in metallurgy for ore processing, in the technology of cleaning petroleum products. It is also necessary in the production of dyes, plastics, chemicals, medicines and detergents, and serves as an electrolyte in lead batteries.
The demand for sulfuric acid will increase significantly in the coming years at the Turkmenabat Chemical Plant itself, as the company plans to build a complex for the production of high-quality concentrated phosphate fertilizers with a capacity of 300,000 tons per year. Establishment of productions for the production of concentrated sorts, forms and compositions of mineral products is another direction in the chemical industry.
China, the United States of America, Russia and Canada are the largest producers of mineral fertilizers in the world. China is the main producer of nitrogen fertilizers, the USA and Russia - phosphorus, Canada, Russia, Belarus - potash. By the way, in the structure of world production, the largest share is occupied by nitrogen fertilizers (64 percent), phosphorus (19 percent), potash fertilizers - about 17 percent, but potash fertilizers account for 80 percent of all export turnover in this area. It should be noted that the volume of international trade in mineral fertilizers and raw materials for their production annually increases.
The release of its own mineral potash production became possible with the commissioning of ore mining and processing enterprise Garlyk, the first in Turkmenistan and the largest in Central Asia.
If we take into account that in the long term the capacity of the plant is planned to increase to 4 million tons of potash fertilizers in demand on the world market per year, colossal deposits of the field exceeding more than 2 billion tons will ensure the stable operation of the complex for many decades.
Turkmenistan takes a responsible approach to environmental issues, so the special attention was paid to ensuring environmental safety when implementing this project and organizing production.
Commissioning of chemical production will allow not only meeting domestic needs for potash fertilizers, but also to supply the prevailing share of production (more than 1.2 million tons per year) for export, the main direction of which is considered the states of South-East Asia. Among them China and India are the largest importers of this type of mineral fertilizers.
It should be noted that a number of deposits have been discovered in the Koytendag etrap, including sulfur, phosphates, rock salt and other minerals, which are also important for the further development of the chemical industry. Another high-quality product based on the latest technologies for deep processing of hydrocarbons will have to be mastered in the gas chemical industry. The complex, built in Kiyanly village in the Balkan velayat, provides for the gradual processing of 5 billion cubic meters of natural gas for production of the most demanded plastics in the world - 81,000 tons of granular polypropylene and 386,000 tons of polyethylene.
Both products of synthetic polymerization are so plastic in the production of various products from them, that construction of new, technologically connected industrial enterprises can be expected in Kiyanly in the foreseeable future.
The issues of comprehensive development of hydro mineral resources in Garabogazgol Bay, which is the unique source of valuable chemical components, establishment of sodium sulfate production and various chemical products, attraction of advanced technologies and equipment of world-famous companies into projects, have become the important topic of business negotiations with foreign partners.
This is one of few places on the planet where, in real natural conditions, crystallization of sodium sulfate and other valuable salt minerals are formed and on the industrial scale. The field is developed by production association "Garabogazsulfat", products of which are sodium sulfate, magnesium (epsomite), magnesium chloride (bischofite). The construction of another factory on the shore of the bay in Garabogaz town, the "bonanza" of which serves as a raw material base for the sulphate industry, is yet another step towards the formation of Turkmenistan as an industrialized power.
The presence of significant raw materials allows our country becoming one of the largest producers of iodine, bromine and a wide range of other chemical products. Construction of industrial plants for the production of caustic soda, liquid chlorine and chlorine products is planned to build in the vicinity of Balkanabat town.
The maximum use of raw materials and production capabilities of the chemical industry allows solving the strategic goals of ensuring food abundance, saturation of the domestic market with high-quality goods of mass demand.
In this context it is important to note the construction of a workshop for the annual production of 40 thousand tons of iodized edible salt and 2 thousand 500 tons of tableted technical salt on the basis of the branch enterprise of the State Concern "Türkmenhimiýa" - "Guwlyduz". The raw material base of the production is the natural deposit of Lake Guvly in Turkmenbashi etrap, where the salt reserves are practically inexhaustible. The commissioning of the new industrial facility will also give impetus to the development of the export capabilities of the industry.
Thus, the commissioning of chemical industry enterprises will give new content to the entire industry of Turkmenistan, ensure its qualitative growth and increase the competitiveness of domestic products.